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Abstract:   (157 Views)
Introduction: Given some limitations in the efficacy of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), the present study investigated the beneficial effects of NAC alone or in combination with RIPC on CIN prevention.
Methods: Rats were randomly assigned into five groups of eight animals each. Group 1 was sham operated controls. In group 2, an experimental model of diatrizoate-induced CIN was induced. In groups 3 and 4, NAC (150 mg/kg orally, 24 h before the CIN induction) or RIPC (3 cycles of 4 min/4 min of ischemia and reperfusion in the forelimbs before the CIN induction) was applied, and both strategies were applied in group 5. Forty eight hours after the intervention, serum was collected to assess creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. Kidney tissue samples were also kept to evaluate the histology and measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity.
Results: Considerable increases in serum Cr and BUN levels in the CIN group showed renal functional damages. The morphological changes, increased renal MDA levels and decreased renal SOD activity in the CIN group represent a remarkable renal injury and oxidative stress compared to the sham group. The individual use of NAC and RIPC improved all indices above. However, the combination of NAC and RIPC was more effective than either strategies used alone.
Conclusion: The combined use of NAC and RIPC may be more useful in preventing CIN than the individual use by possible additive effects through reducing oxidative stress.
     

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