Volume 27, Issue 1 (March 2023)                   Physiol Pharmacol 2023, 27(1): 92-99 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Abstract:   (931 Views)
Introduction: Acute accidental and deliberate poisoning by medications and pharmaceuticals is the third cause of death in suicides after hanging and self-immolation. To determine the common pattern of intentional drug poisoning in Tehran, this descriptive and retrospective study has reviewed and analyzed the data related to the records of patients admitted due to intentional drug poisoning, 2018-2019 at Loghman-Hakim-Hospital-Poison-Center (LHHPC).
Methods: This is an epidemiological, cross-sectional investigation based on the medical profile of 9245 patients who were admitted to LHHPC for intentional drug poisoning from May 2018 to May 2019. The verified variables included: age, gender, type of drug used, previous history of mental health problems, presence or absence of a previous history of suicide, the outcome of hospitalization and time of emergency visit. All inquiry data were coded and statistically analyzed using SPSS Version 26 software.
Results: The average age of the admitted cases was 29.3±12.4, with a minimum age of 12 years. The greatest proportion of poisoning occurred between the ages of 21-30 years. About 17.10% of patients had a previous history of self-harm and 57.77% had mental disorders. The most common pharmaceuticals for deliberate poisoning were anti-epileptics-sedative-hypnotics, antipyretics-non-opioid-analgesics, narcotics- hallucinogens and antidepressant-antipsychotic. Mortality was significantly higher in men and also following methadone and benzodiazepines.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of intentional poisoning and its resulting mortality among young adults requires considerable attention and further studies to understand the underlying causes. Besides, strict rules need to be enforced regarding the sale of central nervous system drugs and opioids.
Full-Text [PDF 3815 kb]   (234 Downloads)    
Type of Manuscript: Experimental research article | Subject: Toxicology

1. Ahmadi A, Pakravan N, Ghazizadeh Z. Pattern of acute food, drug, and chemical poisoning in Sari City, Northern Iran. Hum Exp Toxicol 2010; 29: 731-38. [DOI:10.1177/0960327110361501]
2. Ajdacic-Gross V, Weiss MG, Ring M, Hepp U, Bopp M, Gutzwiller F, et al. Methods of suicide: international suicide patterns derived from the WHO mortality database. Bull World Health Organ 2008; 86: 726-32. [DOI:10.2471/BLT.07.043489]
3. Ashrafioun L, Pigeon WR, Conner KR, Leong SH, Oslin DW. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among veterans in primary care referred for a mental health evaluation. J Affect Disord 2016; 189: 344- 50. [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.09.014]
4. Bagge CL, Lee H-J, Schumacher JA, Gratz KL, Krull JL, Holloman JrG. Alcohol as an acute risk factor for recent suicide attempts: a case-crossover analysis. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2013; 74: 552-8. [DOI:10.15288/jsad.2013.74.552]
5. Borges G, Loera CR. Alcohol and drug use in suicidal behaviour. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2010; 23: 195-204. [DOI:10.1097/YCO.0b013e3283386322]
6. Callanan VJ, Davis MS. Gender differences in suicide methods. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2012; 47: 857-69. [DOI:10.1007/s00127-011-0393-5]
7. Chang B, Gitlin D, Patel R. The depressed patient and suicidal patient in the emergency department: evidence-based management and treatment strategies. Emerg Med Pract 2011; 13: 1-23.
8. Eddleston M. Patterns and problems of deliberate self-poisoning in the developing world. Qjm 2000; 93: 715-31. [DOI:10.1093/qjmed/93.11.715]
9. Hassanian-Moghaddam H, Zamani N, Rahimi M, Shadnia S, Pajoumand A, Sarjami S. Acute adult and adolescent poisoning in Tehran, Iran; the epidemiologic trend between 2006 and 2011. Arch Iran Med 2014; 17: 534-8. ICD-10.
10. International Classification of Diseases Version 10: Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of drugs, medicaments and biological substances T36-T50. Online ICD-10-CM Codes › S00-T88 2014.
11. Karbakhsh M, Zandi NS. Pattern of poisoning in the elderly: an experience from Tehran. Clin Toxicol 2008; 46: 211- 217. [DOI:10.1080/15563650701638982]
12. Kavak G, Aydin M, Altinbas K. Evaluation of suicide attempt by using medicines and chemicals. 2019. [DOI:10.26226/morressier.5b681762b56e9b005965c0db]
13. Kazemifar AM, Mirakbari SM, Yazdi Z, Bitazar B, Soleimani P. Clinicoepidemiologic profile of patients with poisoning presenting to a tertiary care hospital; a one year preliminary descriptive study. J prev epidemiol 2020; 5: 15. https://doi.org/10.34172/jpe.2020.15 [DOI:10.34172/jpe.2020.15]
14. Larney S, Topp L, Indig D, O’driscoll C, Greenberg D. A cross-sectional survey of prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among prisoners in New South Wales, Australia. BMC public health 2012; 12: 1-7. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-14]
15. Masoumi G, Eizadi-Mood N, Akabri M, Sohrabi A, Khalili Y. Pattern of poisoning in Isfahan. J Isfahan Med Sch 2012; 29.
16. Moradi M, Ghaemi K, Mehrpour O. A hospital base epidemiology and pattern of acute adult poisoning across Iran: a systematic review. Electron Physician 2016; 8: 2860-70. [DOI:10.19082/2860]
17. Moradinazar M, Najafi F, Baneshi MR, Haghdoost AA. Estimation of the rate and number of underreported deliberate self-poisoning attempts in western Iran in 2015. Epidemiol Health 2017; 39: e2017023. [DOI:10.4178/epih. e2017023]
18. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Evidence-based health policy--lessons from the Global Burden of Disease Study. Science 1996; 274: 740-3. [DOI:10.1126/science.274.5288.740]
19. Pajoumand A. A one-year epidemiological study of acute poisoning among adults and adolescents admitted to Loghman hospital, Tehran between 2005 and 2006. Pajoohandeh J 2007; 12: 169-76.
20. Pajoumand A, Talaie H, Mahdavinejad A, Birang S, Zarei M, Mehregan FF, et al. Suicide epidemiology and characteristics among young Iranians at poison ward, Loghman-Hakim Hospital (1997-2007). Arch Iran Med 2012; 15.
21. Rezaeian M. Comparing the statistics of Iranian Ministry of Health with data of Iranian Statistical Center regarding recorded suicidal cases in Iran. HSR 2012.
22. Sarvestani RS. Sociology of Deviance: Social Pathology: SAMT 2019.
23. Shadnia S, Esmaily H, Sasanian G, Pajoumand A, Hassanian-Moghaddam H, Abdollahi M. Pattern of acute poisoning in Tehran-Iran in 2003. Hum Exp Toxicol 2007; 26: 753- 756. [DOI:10.1177/0960327107083017]
24. Shneidmann S. The suicidal mind. New York; Oxford University Publisher 1996.
25. Sorodoc V, Jaba I M, Lionte C, Mungiu O C, Sorodoc L. Epidemiology of acute drug poisoning in a tertiary center from Iasi County, Romania. Hum Exp Toxicol 2011; 30: 1896- 903. [DOI:10.1177/0960327111403172]
26. Spiller HA, Appana S, Brock GN. Epidemiological trends of suicide and attempted suicide by poisoning in the US: 2000- 2008. Leg Med 2010; 12: 177-83. [DOI:10.1016/j. legalmed.2010.04.005]
27. Taghadosi Nejad F, Arefi M, Okazi A, Moradkhani A, Fayyaz A F. Neurological Sequels and Their Causes in Patients Hospitalized in the Toxicology Intensive Care Unit of Bahraloo Hospital, Tehran, Iran. J Arch Mil Med. 2015;3(2):e27950. [DOI:10.5812/jamm.3(2)2015.27950]
28. WHO. Suicide in the world. Journal 2019: 32. [DOI:10.1016/S0262-1762(18)30421-8]
29. Zakharov S, Navratil T, Pelclova D. Suicide attempts by deliberate self-poisoning in children and adolescents. Psychiatry Res 2013; 210: 302-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.03.037]

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.