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Introduction: The effectiveness of various extrinsic and intrinsic regulatory signals on food intake and body weight may be impacted by the influence of hypothalamic neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. Some reports emphasize the vital role of regular physical activity in proper weight management. Nonetheless, how the physical activity functions are affected by the molecular and cellular processes is yet to be revealed. Hence, the impact of various intensities of long-term physical activities on body weight regulation and appetite was investigated.
Material and methods: Twenty-one Wistar rats (n=7) were randomized into three groups: [1] Control group, [2] group regularly exercised for 24 weeks on moderate intensity (24-ME, over 24 weeks ( 5 days each week)), and [3] Frequently and intensively exercised group over 24-weeks (24-IE, over 24 weeks ( 5 days each week)). Finally, RT-PCR and ELISA methods were performed to estimate the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus Npy and Pomc gene expression and acyl-ghrelin and leptin serum levels, respectively.
Results: The Pomc mRNA level was reduced in the 24-ME group compared to the control rats. However, intensive-regular exercising increased Npy expression in contrast with the control rats. Inversely, body weight and food intake levels were considerably higher in the 24-ME and 24-IE groups than in the control group. Various intensities of prolonged exercising increase the degree of appetite and eventually the body weight from two molecular pathways.
Conclusion: Hence, it can be concluded that prolonged intensive exercising is not a practical approach for weight loss.


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